Like struvite, calcium phosphate carbonate forms as a consequence of urinary tract infection withbacteria that produce the enzyme urease. Uroliths recur when urinary tract infections are inadequately prevented. Calcium phosphate carbonate commonly forms in breeds that are also at risk for calcium oxalate uroliths (Shih Tzu, Bichon, miniature Schnauzer, etc.). We hypothesize that increased calcium excretion in combination with urinary tract infection are important risk factors for calcium phosphate carbonate. Therefore, avoid prevention therapies that increase the risk for calcium oxalate (i.e. do not overly acidify urine).